Balinese caring & fighting gamecocks during Mount Agung eruption

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Cockfighting .. Tajen and Tabuh Rah are centuries-old traditions of Balinese Hinduism.

A quick search of “culture” and “cultural” on the International Bill of Human Rights (IBHR) will result to a total of 13 lines from 11 articles.

– Gameness til the End

PS

The International Bill of Human Rights (IBHR) is composed of:

  • the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (composed of 30 articles)
  • the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (composed of 31 articles) and its Optional Protocol
    • the Optional Protocol of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR-OP) (composed of 22 articles)
  • the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (composed of 53 articles) and its two Optional Protocols
    • the First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR-OP1) (composed of 14 articles)
    • the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty (ICCPR-OP2) (composed of 11 articles)

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Article 22

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 27

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

PART I – Article 1

1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

PART II – Article 3

The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights set forth in the present Covenant.

PART III – Article 6

2. The steps to be taken by a State Party to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include technical and vocational guidance and training programmes, policies and techniques to achieve steady economic, social and cultural development and full and productive employment under conditions safeguarding fundamental political and economic freedoms to the individual.

PART III – Article 15

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone:
(a) To take part in cultural life;
2. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for the conservation, the development and the diffusion of science and culture.
4. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the benefits to be derived from the encouragement and development of international contacts and co-operation in the scientific and cultural fields.

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Article 2 Communications

Communications may be submitted by or on behalf of individuals or groups of individuals, under the jurisdiction of a State Party, claiming to be victims of a violation of any of the economic, social and cultural rights set forth in the Covenant by that State Party. Where a communication is submitted on behalf of individuals or groups of individuals, this shall be with their consent unless the author can justify acting on their behalf without such consent.

Article 11 Inquiry procedure

2. If the Committee receives reliable information indicating grave or systematic violations by a State Party of any of the economic, social and cultural rights set forth in the Covenant, the Committee shall invite that State Party to cooperate in the examination of the information and to this end to submit observations with regard to the information concerned.

Article 14 International assistance and cooperation

3. A trust fund shall be established in accordance with the relevant procedures of the General Assembly, to be administered in accordance with the financial regulations and rules of the United Nations, with a view to providing expert and technical assistance to States Parties, with the consent of the State Party concerned, for the enhanced implementation of the rights contained in the Covenant, thus contributing to building national capacities in the area of economic, social and cultural rights in the context of the present Protocol.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

PART I – Article 1

1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

PART III – Article 27

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language.

PPS

Read the complete text of these rights at Human Rights Day: Every 10th of December.

– Gameness til the End

Volcanic eruptions no match for cockfighting, Bali-style

Dec 8, 2017, 12:08 pm SGT | The Straits Times

A crowd gathering at a clandestine site where birds battle each other, usually to the death, in a gory spectacle known as tajen that meshes bloodsport with ancient Balinese Hindu traditions. PHOTO: AFP

KARANGASEM, INDONESIA (AFP) – A volcano may be rumbling off in the distance, but for a group of Balinese men and their fighting roosters it’s the roar of the crowd that says the show must go on.

Far off the Indonesian resort island’s tourist trail, heavily tattooed men gather at a clandestine site where birds battle each other – usually to the death – in a gory spectacle known as tajen that meshes bloodsport with ancient Balinese Hindu traditions.

About 100 male spectators gather on bamboo benches around a dirt ring as two roosters pulled from wicker baskets lunge at each other even before the match starts.

The two owners exchange birds to check weight and temperament, a show of sportsmanship to make sure they’re evenly matched.

“If the owners of both fighters reach a deal and say ‘okay, let’s fight’, then the roosters fight,” said I Made Gunawan, whose rooster was fighting that day.

A small dagger about 10cm long is tied to each rooster’s left ankle.

The heady smell of incense wafts over the ring as a roar erupts from the crowd. Bets are placed, usually between 20,000 and 100,000 rupiah each (S$2 to S$10), with most events lasting 15 fights.

The roosters are set loose and feathers fly in an explosion of jumping and pecking that sets the already excited crowd into a bloodthirsty frenzy.

The match goes the distance – three rounds over eight minutes – until the referee calls it a draw. Both roosters, weak and wounded, are unable to keep fighting.

The ankle blades usually make it a fight to the death in a matter of minutes, punctuated by trails of blood seeping into the dirt.

The winner’s owner not only gets bragging rights and some of the betting proceeds – usually 10 per cent of the purse which can reach US$2,000 (S$2,670)- but they also get the carcass of their opponent’s rooster, for eating.

“My fighter lost today – it won the last time,” said Sudira as he helplessly watched his dying rooster be slaughtered to make dinner.

It’s a short career for surviving roosters, who are retired after just a few matches.

“They’re then used to breed with hens,” said Kadek Rudi, whose best fighter was recovering from severe belly wounds.

“The offspring will also be good fighters like their father.”

The fight took place not far from Mt Agung, which recently burst to life again, sparking mass evacuations and leaving tourists stranded after the main airport was temporarily shuttered.

Despite the dangers, leaving his roosters alone in Pring Sari, a tiny community less than 8km from the belching crater, was not an option for Wayan Kompyang.

“I have to keep taking care of them to make sure they are healthy and ready to fight after this situation calms down,” he said.

Gambling is illegal in Indonesia, where it could land these man in jail for as much as a decade. In conservative Aceh province gamblers can face a public whipping under Islamic law.

Cockfighting – the sole source of income for some Balinese men – cuts a sharp contrast with tranquil images of the island as a palm-fringed paradise.

But it dovetails with centuries-old traditions of Balinese Hinduism in the mostly Muslim archipelago.

“Tajen (cockfighting) is closely related to a ritual known as ‘tabuh rah’ held at temples,” said Ni Made Ras Amanda Gelgel, a cultural studies lecturer at Bali’s Udayana University.

“The spilling of blood to the earth is needed to expel ‘buta’ or demons, because their blood is believed to appease demons so they don’t disturb people and so the ceremony can be held successfully and safely,” she said. “But it eventually shifted to become entertainment.”

Training roosters isn’t for everyone, however, even those who have a stomach for violence.

“Taking care of the roosters isn’t easy – they have special food and you need to know how to treat the animals,” Gelgel said.

“It’s not as simple as having a good fighter that wins a lot so you can get rich. There is lot more involved.”




poultry gamefowl chicken gamecock

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