– Gameness til the End
By Learn Chinese History
Emperor Chengdi was born in 51 BCE. His name at birth was Liu Ao. He was the son of the Western Han dynasty emperor, Yuandi. His mother was his father’s wife, Empress Wang. Upon the death of his father, Emperor Yuandi, in 33 BCE, Liu Shi became the ninth emperor of the Western Han dynasty. Chengdi (Ch’eng-ti) means “Accomplished Emperor”.
China under Emperor Chengdi
Emperor Chengdi was only nineteen when he became emperor. He had little interest in running his country or his empire. The government reforms and frugal stance of his father, Emperor Yuandi, appeared to have no value to Chengdi. He was more interested in amusing himself, such as watching cockfighting. His mother, the dowager empress, Wang, ran his government. She placed her family members in important positions including Marshall of State.
Leaving the running of the empire to the Wang family was not in the best interest of Emperor Chengdi’s heirs. The Wang family grew increasingly powerful and later years saw the rise of the dowager Empress Wang’s nephew, Wang Mang.
Outside of the government intrigue, wealthy families continued to gain in strength and wealth, paying only one-half of the taxes paid by peasant farmers. With little money going into government treasuries public works were neglected. In 30-29 BCE, the flooding from the Yellow River caused much damage, which would not have occurred if money had been available for the maintenance of river levees.
Emperor Chengdi’s Family
Emperor Chengdi had two wives and several concubines, and at least three children.
Emperor Chengdi, although possibly not an evil person, used his influence and his position to elevate a concubine to position of empress. He had his wife, Empress Xu, removed from the court and his concubine, Zhao, made empress. Additionally, he had sons born to his other concubines killed to assure Zhao’s place in the court and her children’s place as his heirs.
Emperor Chengdi died in 7 BCE. His plot to assure his own child succeeded him, as emperor, did not work as his half-nephew, Aidi, succeeded him as emperor of the Western Han dynasty.
Emperor Cheng of Han (51–7 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty ruling from 33 until 7 BC. Under Emperor Cheng, the Han dynasty continued its slide into disintegration while the Wang clan continued its slow grip on power and on governmental affairs as promoted by the previous emperor. Corruptions and greedy officials continued to plague the government and as a result rebellions broke out throughout the country. Emperor Cheng died after a reign of 26 years and was succeeded by his nephew.
The Han dynasty (Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàn cháo) was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China’s majority ethnic group refers to itself as the “Han people” and the Chinese script is referred to as “Han characters”. It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD).
The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in AD 1911.
The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum.
The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han’s borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC.
After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han’s ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.