Gameness is also an observed trait (phenotype) of gamecock chickens aside from being inherited (genotype). Male gamecock chickens are game or fight to the death from 5-7 months old. But a 10-day old gamecock chick of any gender might also fight to death for no apparent reason.
As a start,
Phenotype = Genotype + Environment
If a gamecock quits:
- it may NOT be the bloodline or the genes or the breed
- it may be the rearing, conditioning, and selection
Yes, the cockfighter is the problem. Not the gamecock chicken.
- hope we all have eliminated the genes of quitters
- hope we all have changed to a better conditioning and selection program
Remember, we can improve gameness thru external intervention not just by genes.
- Quality of concrete pile is tested in laboratory. Not in actual construction.
- Quality of gamecock especially gameness MUST BE tested at the farm. Not in cockpit.
Do quality test in the laboratory aka the farm. Thus, gameness is partly what you do to your gamecock – physically and mentally.
Gameness is both genotype and phenotype.
Gene modification or gene therapy is a thought of all cockfighters from all over the world. Future discovery of gameness genes in chicken will be beneficial to chickens and even other species including humans.
– Gameness til the End
The genotype–phenotype distinction is drawn in genetics. “Genotype” is an organism’s full hereditary information. “Phenotype” is an organism’s actual observed properties, such as morphology, development, or behavior. This distinction is fundamental in the study of inheritance of traits and their evolution.
It is the organism’s physical properties which directly determine its chances of survival and reproductive output, while the inheritance of physical properties occurs only as a secondary consequence of the inheritance of genes. Therefore, to properly understand the theory of evolution via natural selection, one must understand the genotype–phenotype distinction. The genes cause a trait, and the phenotype is the observable expression of the genes (and therefore the genotype that affects the trait). Say a white mouse had the recessive genes that caused the genes that cause the color of the mouse to be inactive (so “cc”). Its genotype would be responsible for its phenotype (the white color).
The mapping of a set of genotypes to a set of phenotypes is sometimes referred to as the genotype–phenotype map.
Similar genotypic changes may result in similar phenotypic alterations, even across a wide range of species.
An organism’s genotype is a major (the largest by far for morphology) influencing factor in the development of its phenotype, but it is not the only one. Even two organisms with identical genotypes normally differ in their phenotypes. One experiences this in everyday life with monozygous (i.e. identical) twins. Identical twins share the same genotype, since their genomes are identical; but they never have the same phenotype, although their phenotypes may be very similar. This is apparent in the fact that their mothers and close friends can always tell them apart, even though others might not be able to see the subtle differences. Further, identical twins can be distinguished by their fingerprints, which are never completely identical.
The concept of phenotypic plasticity describes the degree to which an organism’s phenotype is determined by its genotype. A high level of plasticity means that environmental factors have a strong influence on the particular phenotype that develops. If there is little plasticity, the phenotype of an organism can be reliably predicted from knowledge of the genotype, regardless of environmental peculiarities during development. An example of high plasticity can be observed in larval newts1: when these larvae sense the presence of predators such as dragonflies, they develop larger heads and tails relative to their body size and display darker pigmentation. Larvae with these traits have a higher chance of survival when exposed to the predators, but grow more slowly than other phenotypes.
In contrast to phenotypic plasticity, the concept of genetic canalization addresses the extent to which an organism’s phenotype allows conclusions about its genotype. A phenotype is said to be canalized if mutations (changes in the genome) do not noticeably affect the physical properties of the organism. This means that a canalized phenotype may form from a large variety of different genotypes, in which case it is not possible to exactly predict the genotype from knowledge of the phenotype (i.e. the genotype-phenotype map is not invertible). If canalization is not present, small changes in the genome have an immediate effect on the phenotype that develops.
The terms “genotype” and “phenotype” were created by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1911.
- Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records
- Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications
- Soft elements, such as personnel, integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships.
Controls include product inspection, where every product is examined visually, and often using a stereo microscope for fine detail before the product is sold into the external market. Inspectors will be provided with lists and descriptions of unacceptable product defects such as cracks or surface blemishes for example.
The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects is deficient in any way.
Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny product release, whereas quality assurance attempts to improve and stabilize production (and associated processes) to avoid, or at least minimize, issues which led to the defect(s) in the first place. For contract work, particularly work awarded by government agencies, quality control issues are among the top reasons for not renewing a contract.