This will be a preamble for articles about evolution, sports, and freedom that will be published soon.
In June 2012, the United States Anti-Doping Agency officially charged Lance Armstrong with doping and trafficking of drugs, based on blood samples from 2009 and 2010, and testimonies from other cyclists. Armstrong, denying all doping use in a statement, was suspended from competition in cycling and triathlon. Armstrong was charged in a letter from USADA, along with five others including former team manager Johan Bruyneel. USADA says Armstrong used banned substances, including the blood-booster EPO and steroids, as well as blood transfusions dating back to 1986.
On July 9, 2012, Armstrong filed a lawsuit in federal court in Austin, Texas against the USADA, which a judge threw out later the same day. The following day, Armstrong filed a revised lawsuit against the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency, once again asking to stop the agency from stripping his seven Tour de France titles and banning him from sport for life if he fails to submit to arbitration over alleged doping violations. Also on July 10, the USADA announced lifetime bans against three of his former U.S. Postal Service cycling team associates: Luis Garcia del Moral, a team doctor, Michele Ferrari, a consulting doctor, and Jose “Pepe” Marti, team trainer. Armstrong’s lawsuit claimed that the USADA did not have jurisdiction and that his right to due process was being violated. The lawsuit was thrown out by U.S. District Judge Sam Sparks on August 20, 2012. Sparks said that Armstrong’s right to process was not violated by the USADA’s process and upheld its jurisdiction in the case. Three days later, Armstrong, while maintaining his innocence, decided to end his fight against USADA instead of having the case arbitrated.
Armstrong’s decision to stop fighting USADA means he forfeits, in the eyes of USADA, all awards and prizes earned after August 1, 1998, including his Tour titles, and is banned from any sport that uses the World Anti-Doping Code. As of 24 August 2012, the UCI was waiting for a reasoned decision from USADA, before any action would be taken.
– Gameness til the End
Lance Edward Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson, September 18, 1971) is an American former professional road racing cyclist who won the Tour de France a record seven consecutive times after having survived testicular cancer. He is also the founder and chairman of the Lance Armstrong Foundation for cancer support. He last rode for UCI ProTeam Team RadioShack, a team he helped found. He has been accused of doping by high-profile cyclists, journalists, anti-doping agencies and U.S. prosecutors, culminating in the USADA declaring his results since August 1998 to be void, although the sport’s governing body, the UCI, has not accepted the competence of USADA to do so.
In October 1996 he was diagnosed as having testicular cancer with a tumor that had metastasized to his brain and lungs. His cancer treatments included brain and testicular surgery and extensive chemotherapy, and his prognosis was initially poor. In 1999, he was named the ABC Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year. In 2000 he won the Prince of Asturias Award in Sports. In 2002, Sports Illustrated magazine named him Sportsman of the Year. He was also named Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year for the years 2002–2005. He received ESPN’s ESPY Award for Best Male Athlete in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006, and won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Overseas Personality Award in 2003. Armstrong announced his retirement from racing on July 24, 2005, at the end of the 2005 Tour de France but returned to competitive cycling in January 2009 and finished third in the 2009 Tour de France. He confirmed he had retired from competitive cycling for good on February 16, 2011.
In June 2012, the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) officially charged Armstrong with the consumption of illicit performance enhancing drugs, based on blood samples from 2009 and 2010, and testimonies from other cyclists. On August 23, 2012, Armstrong announced that he would not be fighting the USADA’s charges. On August 24, 2012, the USADA said it would ban Armstrong for life and recommend that he be stripped of his record seven Tour de France titles. Later that day it was confirmed in a USADA statement that Armstrong was banned for life and would be disqualified from any and all competitive results obtained on and subsequent to August 1, 1998, including forfeiture of any medals, titles, winnings, finishes, points and prizes. Armstrong and the UCI have questioned whether the USADA has the legal authority to enforce their ruling before Armstrong’s claim was rejected by the Texas District Court.
The United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) is a non-profit, non-governmental organization and the self-proclaimed national anti-doping organization (NADO) for the United States. The organization has obtained control of anti-doping programs for U.S. Olympic, Paralympic, Pan-American and ParaPan American sport. Its work includes in-competition and out-of-competition testing, the results management and adjudication process, the provision of drug reference resources, the therapeutic-use exemption process, various scientific research initiatives, and athlete and outreach education. USADA is headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
USADA is a signatory to, and responsible for implementation in the United States of, the World Anti-Doping Code, widely considered the basis for the strongest and strictest anti-doping programs in sports. In 2001 the agency was recognized by the U.S. Congress as “the official anti-doping agency for Olympic, Pan American and Paralympic sport in the United States.” USADA is not a government entity, however the agency is partly funded by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), with its remaining budget generated from contracts for anti-doping services with sport organizations, most notably the United States Olympic Committee. The United States has also ratified the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport, the first global international treaty against doping in sport.