There are two major theories on the origin of Austronesian peoples.
- The Out-of-Taiwan Theory
- The Out-of-the-Philippines Theory (favored by experts)
What does these theories or Austronesian got to do with cockfighting. A lot… culture… gamecock breeds evolution… cockspur weapons evolution.. some are not yet publish… just visit often… the photos will be in our facebook pages…
And do not forget that the junglefowl lives in Austronesia since the beginning of time (as well as in India in the ancient times).
For the gamecocks of Austronesian people, visit these facebook pages:
- Ayam Sabungan
- Ayam Jantan Sabung Ayam
- Gà chọi
- Tandang Panabong
- IGON (Isang Patakbuhang Panabong)
These are not gamecocks of Austronesian people but you maybe interested, visit these facebook pages:
- おんどり 闘鶏 / 闘鶏ルースター (archeological finds in the future might give some proof that this is of austronesian too, but not yet)
- Combat de coqs (Malgache photo album in this page is of Austronesian)
- Gallo de Pelea
- Briga de galo Galo
- Horoz Dövüşü Horoz
- Asil / Aseel / Asli
The Austronesian speaking peoples are a population in Oceania and Southeast Asia that speaks languages of the Austronesian family and share common descent from ancient Mongoloid aboriginal peoples of Oceania. Austronesian peoples include: Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the Austronesian peoples of Melanesia. They are also found in Singapore, the Pattani region of Thailand, and the Cham areas of Vietnam (remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), Cambodia, and Hainan, China. The territories settled by Austronesian peoples are known collectively as Austronesia.
Prehistory and history
Archaeological evidence demonstrates a technological connection between the farming cultures of the south (Southeast Asia and Melanesia) and sites that are first known from mainland China, whereas a combination of archaeological and linguistic evidence has been interpreted as supporting a northern (southern China and Taiwan) origin for the Austronesian language family. In a recent treatment, all Austronesian languages were classified into 10 subfamilies, with all the extra-Formosan languages grouped in one subfamily and with representatives of the remaining 9 known only in Taiwan. It has been argued that these patterns are best explained by dispersal of an agricultural people from Taiwan into insular Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and, ultimately, the remote Pacific. Although this model—termed the “express train to Polynesia” — is broadly consistent with available data, concerns have been raised. Alternatives to this model posit an indigenous origin for the Austronesian languages in Melanesia or Southeast Asia.
Migration and dispersion
Some western scholars believe Austronesian peoples originated on the island of Taiwan following the migration of pre-Austronesian speaking peoples from continental Asia approximately 10,000-6000 BC. According to some linguists, due to a lengthy split from the Austro-Tai populations, the Proto-Austronesian language, the cultures and ethnic groups of the Austronesian peoples began on Taiwan approximately 6,000 years ago.
Austronesian peoples themselves have a variety of different traditions, and history of their origins. Some Indonesian scholars believe that the Austronesian peoples originated in Maritime Southeast Asia (the Philippines). However according to most Western scholars, Austronesian peoples originated on the island of Taiwan, and are spread as far away as Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, Easter Island, Maritime Southeast Asia, New Zealand, and to the rest of the Pacific Islands.
According to mainstream “out of Taiwan model”, a large-scale Austronesian expansion began around 5000-2500 BC. Population growth primarily fueled this migration. These first settlers may have landed in northern Luzon in the archipelago of the Philippines, intermingling with the earlier Australo-Melanesian population who had inhabited the islands about 23,000 years earlier. Over the next thousand years, Austronesian peoples migrated southeast to the rest of the Philippines, and into the islands of the Celebes Sea, Borneo, and Indonesia. The Austronesian peoples of Maritime Southeast Asia sailed eastward, and spread to the islands of Melanesia and Micronesia between 1200 BC. and 500 AD. respectively. The Austronesian inhabitants that spread westward through Maritime Southeast Asia had reached some parts of mainland Southeast Asia, and later on Madagascar.
Sailing from Melanesia, and Micronesia, the Austronesian peoples discovered Polynesia by 1000 BC. These people settled most of the Pacific Islands. They had settled Easter Island by 300 AD, Hawaii by 400 AD, and into New Zealand by 800 AD. In the Indian Ocean they sailed west from Maritime Southeast Asia; the Austronesian peoples reached Madagascar by 0-500 AD.
This “out of Taiwan model” has been recently challenged by a study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution, which showed that mitochondrial DNA lineages have been evolving within Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) since modern humans arrived approximately 50,000 years ago. Population dispersals occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which resulted in migrations from the Philippine Islands to as far north as Taiwan within the last 10,000 years.
The “out of Southeast Asia” theory also supported by new scientific evidence presented by HUGO (Human Genome Organization) through genetic studies of the Asian races that points to a single Asian migration from Southeast Asia traveling northwards and slowly populating East Asia instead of the other way around which as popularly depicted in “out of Taiwan” model. From the scientific discovery which has been a silent evidence, it has pointed out that the Southeast Asian civilizations are a much older civilization compared to the widely researched and well documented East Asians’ ancient civilizations.
Formation of tribes and kingdoms
By the beginning of the first millennium AD, most of the Austronesian inhabitants in Maritime Southeast Asia began trading with India and China which allowed the creation of Indianized kingdoms such as Srivijaya, Melayu, Majapahit, and the establishment of Hinduism and Buddhism. Muslim traders from the Arabian peninsula were thought to have brought Islam by the 10th century. Islam was established as the dominant religion in the Indonesian archipelago by the 16th century. The Austronesian inhabitants of Polynesia were unaffected by this cultural trade, and retained their indigenous culture in the Pacific region.
Europeans in search of spices later colonized most of the Austronesian speaking countries of the Asia-Pacific region, beginning from the 16th century with the Portuguese, and Spanish colonization of some parts of Indonesia (present day East Timor), the Philippines, Palau, Guam, and the Mariana Islands; the Dutch colonization of the Indonesian archipelago; the British colonization of Malaysia and Oceania; the French colonization of French Polynesia; and later, the American governance of the Pacific.
Meanwhile, the British, Germans, French, Americans, and Japanese began establishing spheres of influence within the Pacific Islands during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Japanese later invaded most of Southeast Asia and some parts of the Pacific during World War II. The latter half of the 20th century initiated independence of modern-day Malaysia, Philippines, the Indonesia, and many of the Pacific Island nations.
Genetic studies have been done on the people and related animals. The Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA)a-M119 genetic marker is frequently detected in Austronesians, as well as some ethnic minorities in China (southern non-Han Chinese). Other genetic markers found in native Austronesian populations are Haplogroup C (Y-DNA) and Haplogroup O3 (Y-DNA).
Austronesian peoples consist of the following groupings by name and geographic location.
- Formosan: Taiwan. e.g. Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Paiwan.
- Borneo groups: e.g. Kadazan, Iban, Murut, Dayak
- Central and Southern Luzon: e.g. Tagalog, Bicolano
- Chamic group: Cambodia, Hainan, Vietnam. e.g. Chams, Jarai, Utsuls.
- Igorot: Cordilleras. e.g. Balangao, Ibaloi, Isneg, Kankanaey.
- Lumad: Mindanao. e.g. Kamayo, Manobo, Tasaday, T’boli.
- Malagasy: Madagascar. e.g. Betsileo, Merina, Sakalava, Tsimihety.
- Melanesians: Melanesia. Fijians, e.g. Kanak, Ni-Vanuatu, Solomon Islands
- Micronesians: Micronesia. e.g. Carolinian, Chamorros, Palauan.
- Moken: Myanmar, Thailand.
- Moro: Bangsamoro (Mindanao, Sulu archipelago). e.g. Maguindanao, Maranao, Tausug.
- Northern Luzon: e.g. Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan
- Polynesians: Polynesia. Māori, Native Hawaiians, Samoans.
- Sunda-Sulawesi language and ethnic groups including Malay, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Acehnese (geographically Includes Malaysia, Brunei, Pattani, Singapore, and much of western and central Indonesia).
- Visayans: Visayas. e.g. Aklanon, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray.
According to a recent studies by Stanford University in the United States, there is wide variety of paternal ancestry among the Austronesian people. Aside from European introgression found in Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Madagascar. They constitute the dominant ethnic group in Maritime Southeast Asia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar. An estimated figure of around 380,000,000 people living in these regions are of Austronesian descent.
They constitute the dominant ethnic groups in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, the southernmost part of Thailand and East Timor, which together with Singapore make up what is called the Malay archipelago. Outside this area, they inhabit Palau, Guam and the Northern Marianas, most of Madagascar, the Cham areas of Vietnam and Cambodia (the remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), and all countries in the Micronesian and Polynesian sphere of influence.
The native culture of Austronesia is diverse, varying from region to region.
The early Austronesian peoples considered the sea as the basic tenet of their life. Following their diaspora to Southeast Asia and Oceania, they used boats to migrate to other islands. Boats of different sizes and shapes have been found in every Austronesian culture, from Madagascar, Maritime Southeast Asia, to Polynesia, and have different names.
In Southeast Asia, head-hunting was particularly restricted to the highlands as a result of warfare. Mummification is only found among the highland Austronesian Filipinos, and in some Indonesian groups in Celebes and Sumatra.
With the possible exception of rongorongo on Easter Island, writing among pre-modern Austronesians was limited to the Indianized states and the sultanates of the Malay Archipelago. These systems included abugidas from the Brahmic family, such as Baybayin, the Javanese script, and Old Kawi, and abjads derived from the Arabic script such as Jawi.
Since the 20th century, new scripts were mostly alphabets adapted from the Latin alphabet, as in the Hawaiian alphabet, Tagalog alphabet, and Malay alphabet; however, several Formosan languages are written in zhuyin, and Cia-Cia off Sulawesi has experimented with hangul.
Indigenous religions were initially predominant. Mythologies vary by culture and geographical location, but are generally bound by the belief in an all-powerful divinity. Other beliefs such as ancestor worship, animism, and shamanism are also practiced. Currently, many of these beliefs have gradually been replaced. Examples of native religions include: Anito, Gabâ, Kejawen, and the Māori religion. The moai of the Rapa Nui is another example since they are built to represent deceased ancestors.
Southeast Asian contact with India and China allowed the introduction of Hinduism and Buddhism. Later, Muslim traders introduced the Islamic faith between the periods of the 10th, and 13th century. The European Age of Discovery, brought Christianity to various parts of the region, including both Aotearoa (the native name for New Zealand before it was named later by the Dutch) and Australia. Currently, the dominant religions are Islam found in Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Thailand, the southern Philippines, and Brunei; Hinduism in Bali, and Fiji; and Christianity in the Philippines, East Timor, Papua New Guinea, most of the Pacific Islands, and Madagasca
Body art among Austronesian peoples is common, especially tattooing. It is particularly prominent in Polynesian cultures, from where the word “tattoo” derives. One such example is the Te moko of New Zealand Māori, but tattooing is also prominent among Austronesian groups in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Borneo. Decorated jars and other forms of pottery are also common.
Austronesian peoples living close to mainland Asia, are influenced by the native, Chinese, Indian, and Islamic art forms.
The Austronesian music in Maritime Southeast Asia had a mixture of Chinese, Indian, and Islamic musical styles and sounds that had fused together with the indigenous Austronesian culture and music. In Indonesia, Gamelan, a type of orchestra that incorporates Xylophone and Metallophone elements, is widely used in its Islamic cultural tradition. In some parts of the southern, and northern Philippines, an Islamic gong-drum known as Kulintang, and a gong-chime known as Gangsa, is also used. The Austronesian music of Oceania have retained their indigenous Austronesian sounds. The Slit drums is an indigenous Austronesian musical instrument that were invented and used by the Southeast Asian-Austronesian, and Oceanic-Austronesian ethnic groups.